Human Rights Europe
On this site you can find everything you need to know about human rights in Europe.
The 30 Human Rights
#1 All born free with equal rights.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
#2 Right to be free from discrimination.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
#3 Right to live in freedom and safety.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
#4 Right to be free from slavery.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
#5 Right to be free from torture.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
#6 Right to be treaty fairly by law.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
#7 Right to equal protection under the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law.
#8 Right to seek justice.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
#9 Right to be free from unfair imprisonment.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
#10 Right to fair public hearing.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
#11 Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty.
No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed.
#12 Right to privacy & freedom from attacks against reputation.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.
#13 Right to be free.
Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
#14 Right to protection in other countries.
Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
#15 Right to belong to a country.
Everyone has the right to a nationality.
#16 Right to get married.
Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
#17 Right to own things.
Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
#18 Right to our own thoughts and religion.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion
#19 Right to think and say what we want.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
#20 Right to gather peacefully.
Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
#22 Right to a social safety net.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security
#23 Right to work and join trade unions.
Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
#24 Right to rest and play.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
#25 Right to health, food, clothing, and housing.
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family.
#26 Right to education.
Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.
#27 Right to enjoy the arts and sciences.
Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
#28 Right to enjoy a free and fair world.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
#29 Responsibility to our community.
Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
#30 No one can take away our human rights.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
The Declaration of human rights is more specified in 9 Human right Treaties:
1. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
2. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
4. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
5. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
6. Convention on the Rights of the Child
7. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
8. International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
9.Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
The United Nations have two Institutes in place to assure and protect the implementation of Human Rights:
1. The UN Treaties bodies
Each of the 9 Treaties has a Treaty body which is supervising and monitoring the implementation of the respective treaty they are responsible for. The members of these bodies are elected by the member states and serve a 4-year term whereby half of the body is always elected every 2 years. The members are not representing their state but function in their expert capacity.
The Treaty bodies have two tools to assure the implementation of the treaty in the member states. The First one are the reports which each member state needs to provide for every Treaty is its demanded. This report needs to include areas of success as well as problematic areas which still needs improvement. This report will be publicly discussed between the treaty body and the member state. The result will be a concluding observation highlighting good parts of the implementation as well as parts which need further improvement.
The second tool are Individual complains about human rights violations against individuals by the state. Individuals submit the complaint by the responsible treaty body. The body will first check if the complaint is admissible or not if that is the case the body will continue and check if a violation has taken place or not. If a violation took place the treaty body will make a recommendation towards the state on how to compensate the individual for the violation. This process is optional, meaning the state has to give permission for the Individual to submit the complaint
The recommendations of United Nations Treaty Bodies are not Strictly binding, their decisions represent authoritative interpretations of relevant Treaties
2. United Nations Human Rights Council
The second Institute which is responsible for the monitoring of the implementation of Human Rights is the United Nations Human Right Council. The Council replaced the Commission of Human Rights in 2006. It has 47 state members, each representing their governments. Each member is elected for a 3-year term. In case of a violation, a member state can get suspended by the fellow states. The council meets three times a year in Geneva for 10 weeks in total. In order to pass a resolution, it needs a majority vote from the member states.
The most important tool the council has is the Universal Periodic review, whereby each member state gets monitored in its implementation by the peer member states.
In case of a human rights issue, the Council assigns a working group or a special procedures, which then investigate into a specific human rights issue. The members of such working groups are not representing a political opinion but work in their independent expert capacity.
The Human Rights Council is an Inter-Governmental Political body, therefore the decisions are not legally binding but get highly politicized. States care about their image, therefore the most powerful tool is political and moral pressure.
The 30 Human Rights as we know them today were written down in the Universal Declaration of human rights. On the 10th of December 1948, the Declaration got adopted by the United Nations.
But the History behind the necessarily of the Human Rights started earlier. The world just witnessed the brutality of two World Wars. As the War ended the United Nations was created to assure that such horrific events as the 2 WW will never happen again. Already in the first assembly in 1946 the need for a Declaration complementing the UN Carter became clear.
In February 1947 a drafting committee of 8 Members lead by Eleanor Roosevelt, Theodor Roosevelts Widow, started to draft the Document. After the first draft was proposed in September 1948, with over 50 Member States participating in the final drafting the final Declaration was finished and adopted 3 Month later.
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